Certain Type of Stroke on the Rise, with Higher Rates Among Black People

Rates of one type of stroke called subarachnoid hemorrhage have increased in older people and men in recent years, and such strokes occur in Black people at a disproportionately higher rate compared to people of other races and ethnicities, according to a study published in the October 26, 2022, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Pandemic Escalated Teen Cyberbullying – Asian Americans Targeted Most

A study of U.S. middle and high school students shows that about 17 percent were cyberbullied in 2016 and 2019, but that proportion rose to 23 percent in 2021. Notably, 19 percent of Asian American youth said they had been cyberbullied, and about 1 in 4 (23.5 percent) indicated they were victimized online because of their race/color. Asian American youth were the only racial group where the majority (59 percent) reported more cyberbullying since the start of the COVID‐19 pandemic. In 2019, Asian American youth were the least likely to have experienced cyberbullying.

Researchers should avoid use terms like ‘race,’ ‘ancestry,’ or ‘ethnicity’ interchangeably

McMaster expert advises on using terms like ‘race’ in health-care research Health-care researchers should avoid use terms like ‘race,’ ‘ancestry,’ or ‘ethnicity’ interchangeably in their studies and research reports, says McMaster University professor Sonia Anand in her latest study in…

UCI research team finds positivity is not equally protective against illness across races

Research has consistently shown that positive psychological factors are linked to better physical health, including increased resistance to infectious illnesses such as the flu and the common cold. A new study from the University of California, Irvine, examines the role that race plays in this connection, comparing the results of African American and European American participants in a series of landmark experimental studies from the Common Cold Project, conducted between 1993 and 2011.

Greater Empathy in Adolescents Helps Prevent Bias-based Cyberbullying

Little is known about cyberbullying and empathy, especially as it relates harming or abusing others because of race or religion. A study is the first to examine general cyberbullying, race-based cyberbullying, and religion-based cyberbullying in young adolescents. Results show that the higher a youth scored on empathy, the lower the likelihood that they cyberbullied others. When it came to bias-based cyberbullying, higher levels of total empathy were associated with lower odds of cyberbullying others based on their race or religion.

Trials of Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments Routinely Exclude Sex, Gender, Race, and Ethnicity from Consideration in Outcomes

The manifestation of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its social, health, and psychological implications depend in part on patient demographics. Yet researchers routinely exclude those demographics from analyses of non-medicinal AUD treatment trials, a review of studies has found. Consequently, little is known about how sex, gender, race, and ethnicity influence the effectiveness of those treatments, or which treatments are indicated — or not — for specific patients and communities. This is despite the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act in 1993 requiring that NIH-funded studies include diversity of sex/gender and race/ethnicity in their participant samples and analysis. Problematic alcohol use, which has high prevalence and low treatment rates, is a leading contributor to preventable death and disease. Non-pharmacological treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI), contingency management, twelve-step programs, and more. Inequalitie

Many Historically “Redlined” California Communities Have Higher COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality

One of the legacies of “redlining” may be higher incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 affecting the largely minority and poor residents of these neighborhoods, according to research published at the ATS 2022 international conference. ” Redlining is a Great Depression-era federal policy in which neighborhoods with large ethnic/racial minority groups were denied federal resources.

Study Finds Rate of Multiple Sclerosis Similarly High in Black and White People

The rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases varies greatly by race and ethnicity. A new study suggests that the prevalence of MS in Black and white people is similarly high, while much lower in Hispanic and Asian people. The research is published in the April 27, 2022, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

How would eliminating race-based adjustments in estimates of kidney function impact clinical trials?

• In an analysis of data from a recent clinical trial, researchers found that removing a race-based adjustment in the estimation of individuals’ kidney function had a small but potentially important impact on the inclusion of participants, with differing effects on Black and non-Black participants.
• Removal of the race-based adjustment also influenced inclusion parameters such as participants’ severity of kidney function impairment at baseline as well as their risk of developing cardiovascular- and kidney-related outcomes.

Study Compares Strategies to Eliminate Race-Based Adjustments in Estimates of Kidney Function

• Removal of race adjustments to equations that estimate kidney function would increase the number of people categorized as having chronic kidney disease.
• There are several modifications for removing race that vary in their expected impact on predicted kidney function values and associated clinical decisions.
• Among race-free equations, the one based on blood measurements of cystatin C would likely result in the smallest changes.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol consumption is far from ‘one size fits all’

An ongoing analysis of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol and related outcomes shows that COVID-related stressors experienced by study participants – including work-, financial-, and family-related stressors – are having a varied impact on individuals with and without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These results will be shared at the 44th annual scientific meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA), which will be held virtually this year from the 19th – 23rd of June 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Establishing Juneteenth as national holiday is opportunity to create “new America”

The Senate has unanimously passed a bill to establish Juneteenth, a holiday commemorating the end of slavery in the United States, as a federal holiday. This is an historic moment and an opportunity to create a “new America,” according to Anne Bailey, professor of history at Binghamton University, State University of New York and director of the Harriet Tubman Center for the Study of Freedom and Equity.

Breast Cancer Study: African Americans Not Experiencing Complete Response to Extent Other Groups Are

Researchers at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center led the largest study to date to suggest an improving trend in pathologic complete response rates over time for U.S. cancer patients of various races. The team’s findings, documented in a poster presentation at the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology virtual annual meeting (abstract 575), show that African Americans are more likely than patients from any other group to have remaining disease following breast cancer treatment.

Alarming Rising Trends in Suicide by Firearms in Young Americans

Researchers explored suicide trends by firearms in white and black Americans ages 5 to 24 years from 1999 to 2018. From 2008 to 2018, rates of suicide by firearms quadrupled in those ages 5 to 14 years and increased by 50 percent in those ages 15 to 24 years. Suicide deaths by firearms were more prevalent in white than black Americans – a marked contrast with homicide by firearms, which are far more prevalent in black than white Americans.

Study finds racial disparities in concussion symptom knowledge among college athletes

Among collegiate football players and other athletes, Black athletes recognize fewer concussion-related symptoms than their White counterparts, reports a study in the May/June issue of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (JHTR). The official journal of the Brain Injury Association of America, JHTR is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Racial, Gender and Socioeconomic Factors Linked to Likelihood of Getting Proven Treatment for Diabetes

A new study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found significant disparities in the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a class of drugs proven to treat type 2 diabetes, with usage remaining low with Black, Asian, and lower-income groups despite an increase in overall usage for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Ancestry estimation perpetuates racism, white supremacy

Ancestry estimation — a method used by forensic anthropologists to determine ancestral origin by analyzing bone structures — is rooted in “race science” and perpetuates white supremacy, according to a new paper by a forensic anthropologist at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Black History Month is important to a world hurting from racial injustices, pandemic

February is Black History Month when the contributions, customs and achievements of African Americans are celebrated. But as the country deals with racial injustice and civil unrest, these 28 days take on greater importance, says Earl Lewis, University of Michigan professor of history and Afroamerican and African studies and director of the U-M Center for Social Solutions.

Strange colon discovery explains racial disparities in colorectal cancer

The colons of African-Americans and people of European descent age differently, new research reveals, helping explain racial disparities in colorectal cancer – the cancer that killed beloved “Black Panther” star Chadwick Boseman.

Rethinking Race and Kidney Function

Removing race from clinical tools that calculate kidney function could have both advantages and disadvantages for Black patients.

Newly diagnosed patients and those whose kidney disease is reclassified as more severe would have greater access to kidney specialists, faster access to the kidney-transplant waitlist.

On the flipside, patients reclassified as having more severe kidney disease may become ineligible for heart, diabetes, pain control and cancer medications or may be given lower doses for these drugs.

A new kidney function score would also increase the number of Black individuals ineligible to donate a kidney, potentially exacerbating organ shortages for Black people.

Researchers caution that clinicians and policy makers must anticipate both the benefits and downsides of changes to the current formula to ensure that Black patients are not disadvantaged, and
health disparities are not exacerbated.

Scientists say the analysis should motivate researchers and cl

Racial attitudes in a community affect COVID-19 numbers

There is a growing body of evidence showing that racial and ethnic minorities are more affected by severe illness, and more likely to be hospitalized, from COVID-19 compared to white people. This disparity can be only partially explained by the disproportionate rates of underlying medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity, seen among Black/African American people.

Surgeon General expects COVID-19 vaccine to be available by year’s end

In a wide-ranging talk with UCLA Health physicians, Wednesday, Oct. 28, United States Surgeon General Jerome Adams, MD, MPH, addressed the politicization of the pandemic and the means of containing the spread of COVID-19. He also offered hope that a vaccine for the virus will be available by year’s end.

Study examines racial and ethnic disparities among COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts

In a new study published in Health Affairs, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health examines the association between community-level factors and COVID-19 case rates across 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts between January 1 and May 6, 2020.