Pain receptors linked to the generation of energy-burning fat cells: implications for obesity therapy

A new source of energy expending brown fat cells has been uncovered by researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center, which they say points towards potential new therapeutic options for obesity. According to the new report, published in Nature Metabolism >on 12 March 2021, the key lies in the expression of a receptor called Trpv1 (temperature-sensitive ion channel transient receptor potential cation subfamily V member 1) — a protein known to sense noxious stimuli, including pain and temperature.

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Kids’ metabolic health can be improved with exercise during pregnancy: here’s why

BOSTON – (March 25, 2021) – A mechanism has been identified that explains how physical exercise in pregnancy confers metabolic health benefits in offspring. According to researchers, the key lies with a protein called SOD3, vitamin D and adequate exercise, with the outcomes possibly forming the first steps to designing rational diet and exercise programs to use during pregnancy and particularly when mothers may also be overweight or obese.

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Liver Cancer Tumors Appear to Be Resistant to Immunotherapy in Patients With Underlying Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

Immunotherapy is not only significantly less effective in liver cancer patients who previously had a liver disease called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but actually appears to fuel tumor growth, according to a Mount Sinai study published in Nature in March. NASH affects as many as 40 million people worldwide and is associated with obesity and diabetes.

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Genetic evidence suggests men can develop PCOS-like condition

New genetic research suggests men can develop characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)—a common metabolic and reproductive disorder that affects women. The study was presented virtually at ENDO 2021, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting.

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Semaglutide reduces excess body fat in people with obesity

In adults with obesity or overweight, weekly treatment with the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonist semaglutide leads to reduced excess body fat and increased lean body mass, according to an industry-sponsored study presented virtually at ENDO 2021, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting.

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U.S. children from Spanish-speaking households experience higher rate of obesity than those from English-speaking families

Nearly one in five U.S. children and teenagers has obesity, and statistics show a higher prevalence of obesity in certain ethnicities, such as Hispanics and Blacks. Now results of a study being presented at ENDO 2021, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting, suggest that Spanish as a family’s primary language is a predictor of childhood obesity, regardless of ethnicity.

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Dual health-risk behaviors in young adults: Problem drinking and maladaptive eating both linked to the brain’s reward pathway and impulsivity

Risky drinking often co-occurs with maladaptive eating in young adults, according to a study reported in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. While previous research had suggested a link between heavy alcohol use and obesity-related factors in college students, the latest study aimed to identify specific profiles of problematic drinking, food addiction, and obesity within a more diverse sample of community-dwelling young people. The researchers also explored shared theoretical risk factors for heavy drinking and overeating, and how these differ across the profiles. Calorie-dense food and alcohol both require little effort to obtain and consume, and each generates immediate and potent experiences of reward in the brain. According to ‘reinforcer pathology’ theory, people who place a high value (‘demand’) on unhealthy items, and who also favor small immediate rewards (such as food and alcohol) over larger delayed rewards (such as health), are at highest risk for overconsumption

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Patients on a Low-Calorie Diet along with Intensive Behavioral Therapy Lost Nearly Three Times as Much Weight When Taking New Anti-Obesity Medication, Semaglutide, than When Taking Placebo

A second study of the injectable anti-obesity medication, semaglutide, has confirmed the large weight losses reported in a study earlier this month, establishing the reliability and robustness of this new drug. With obesity affecting more than 40 percent of American adults, the findings could have a major impact on weight management in primary care and other settings.

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Study Estimates Two-Thirds of COVID-19 Hospitalizations Due to Four Conditions

A new study estimates 64% of adult COVID-19 hospitalizations in the U.S. may have been prevented if there were less obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure. The model suggests notable differences by age and race/ethnicity in COVID-19 hospitalizations related to these conditions.

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Body shape, beyond weight, drives fat stigma for women

Fat stigma in women contributes to poor medical outcomes and negatively affects educational and economic opportunities. A new study from scientists at Arizona State University and Oklahoma State University shows that body shape, beyond overall weight, drives fat stigma. Women with overweight and obesity who carry gluteofemoral fat were less stigmatized than those who carry abdominal fat. These findings could affect how interventions for overweight and obesity are designed and delivered.

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Researchers Identify Muscle Factor that Controls Fat Metabolism

In a recent study, published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, University Hospitals (UH) Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers have found that skeletal muscle significantly affects how the body stores and metabolizes fat.

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Exercise during Pregnancy Protects Kids’ Future Health from Parents’ Obesity

New research in mice suggests that exercising during pregnancy may help prevent children—especially boys—from developing health problems related to their parents’ obesity. The study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology. It was chosen as an APSselect article for February.

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Dietary Adherence and the Fight Against Obesity

While eating less and moving more are the basics of weight control and obesity treatment, finding ways to help people adhere to a weight-loss regimen is more complicated. Understanding what features make a diet easier or more challenging to follow can help optimize and tailor dietary approaches for obesity treatment.

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Brain Pressure Disorder that Causes Headache, Vision Problems on Rise

A new study has found a brain pressure disorder called idiopathic intracranial hypertension is on the rise, and the increase corresponds with rising obesity rates. The study is published in the January 20, 2021, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study also found that for women, socioeconomic factors like income, education and housing may play a role in their risk.

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Research News Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Johns Hopkins Medicine Media Relations is focused on disseminating current, accurate and useful information to the public via the media. As part of that effort, we are distributing our “COVID-19 Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins” every other Tuesday.

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Largest Study of Its Kind Identifies Which COVID-19 Patients Face the Greatest Risk of Mortality During Hospitalization

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a greater risk of dying if they are men or are obese or have complications from diabetes or hypertension, according to a new study conducted by University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) researchers. In a study published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, the researchers evaluated nearly 67,000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in 613 hospitals across the country to determine link between common patient characteristics and the risk of dying from COVID-19.

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Multiomics, Gentational Cd Exposure, Estrogen Receptor Transactivation, and More Featured in December 2020 Toxicological Sciences

The December 2020 issue of the Society of Toxicology’s official journal, Toxicological Sciences, delivers cutting-edge toxicological research in endocrine toxicology, environmental toxicology, organ-specific toxicology, and more.

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Cleveland Clinic Research Shows Bariatric Surgery May Reduce Severity of COVID-19 in Patients with Obesity

CLEVELAND: A Cleveland Clinic study shows that among patients who have obesity and who tested positive for COVID-19, a past history of bariatric surgery was significantly associated with a lower risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission. The results were published in the journal of Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

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Study finds antibiotics before age 2 associated with childhood health issues

In a retrospective case study, Mayo Clinic researchers have found that antibiotics administered to children younger than 2 are associated with several ongoing illnesses or conditions, ranging from allergies to obesity. The findings appear in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Antibiotic Exposure in Children Under Age 2 Associated with Chronic Conditions

Children under age 2 who take antibiotics are at greater risk for childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to a paper written jointly by Mayo Clinic and Rutgers researchers. While previous studies have looked at the association of antibiotics with single diseases, this is the first to look at the association across many diseases.

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All Weight Loss Isn’t Equal For Reducing Heart Failure Risk

DALLAS – Nov. 9, 2020 – Reducing the level of body fat and waist size are linked to a lower risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes, a study led by UT Southwestern researchers indicates. The findings, reported today in Circulation, suggest that all weight loss isn’t equal when it comes to mitigating the risk of heart disease.

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