Active Matter, Curved Spaces: Mini Robots Learn to ‘Swim’ on Stretchy Surfaces

Physicists are using small wheeled robots to better understand indirect mechanical interactions, how they play a role in active matter, and how we can control them. Their findings, “Robotic swimming in curved space via geometric phase” are recently published in the The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

MD Anderson Research Highlights for September 28, 2022

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center’s Research Highlights provides a glimpse into recent basic, translational and clinical cancer research from MD Anderson experts. Current advances include an investigation into the efficacy of dexamethasone for dyspnea relief, a combination therapy for hairy cell leukemia, an analysis of RAS mutations and their prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a possible new combination therapy for basal-like breast cancer, and swallowing exercises to improve the quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

Rate of food insecurity skyrockets for Americans with cardiovascular disease, study finds

The number of Americans with cardiovascular disease who are food insecure – having limited or uncertain access to adequate food – has more than doubled over the last 20 years, a national study finds. Adults with cardiovascular disease were more than two times likely to be food insecure than those without the cardiovascular disease.

Hubble Detects Protective Shield Defending a Pair of Dwarf Galaxies

Researchers have used Hubble and FUSE observations of ultraviolet light from quasars to detect and map the Magellanic Corona, a diffuse halo of hot, supercharged gas surrounding the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. Shown in purple, the corona stretches more than 100,000 light-years from the main mass of stars, gas, and dust that make up the Magellanic Clouds, intermingling with the hotter and more extensive Milky Way Corona, shown in blue. The corona is thought to act as a buffer protecting the dwarf galaxies’ vital star-forming gas from the gravitational pull of the much larger Milky Way.

AI-guided screening uses ECG data to detect a hidden risk factor for stroke

An AI-guided targeted screening strategy is effective in detecting new cases of atrial fibrillation that would not have come to attention in routine clinical care.
This strategy could reduce the number of undiagnosed cases of atrial fibrillation, and prevent stroke and death in millions of patients across the globe.

People who feel less pain are also less willing to help others

A reduced ability to feel pain in one’s own body leads to a reduced willingness to help others who feel pain. This result of a study published in Psychological Science by cognitive psychologists at the University of Vienna led by Claus Lamm and Helena Hartmann points beyond the individual effects of pain medication to its social costs.

Machine learning creates opportunity for new personalized therapies

Researchers at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center have developed a computational platform that can predict new and specific metabolic targets in ovarian cancer, suggesting opportunities to develop personalized therapies for patients that are informed by the genetic makeup of their tumors. The study appeared in Nature Metabolism.

Descubren evidencias de las primeras estrellas del Universo

Un equipo internacional de astrónomos halló evidencia de antiguos vestigios químicos de las primeras estrellas que iluminaron el Universo. Usando un análisis innovador de un cuásar distante observado por el telescopio Gemini Norte de 8,1 metros en Hawai’i, y que opera NOIRLab de la NSF, los científicos encontraron una proporción inusual de elementos que, según ellos, sólo podrían provenir de los desechos producidos en la explosión de una estrella de primera generación de 300 masas solares.

Potential First Traces of the Universe’s Earliest Stars

Astronomers may have discovered the ancient chemical remains of the first stars to light up the Universe. Using an innovative analysis of a distant quasar observed by the 8.1-meter Gemini North telescope on Hawai‘i, operated by NSF’s NOIRLab, the scientists found an unusual ratio of elements that, they argue, could only come from the debris produced by the all-consuming explosion of a 300-solar-mass first-generation star.

Engineers discover new process for synthetic material growth, enabling soft robots that grow like plants

An interdisciplinary team of University of Minnesota Twin Cities researchers has developed a new, plant-inspired extrusion process that enables synthetic material growth, and the creation of a soft robot that builds its own solid body from liquid to navigate hard-to-reach places and complicated terrain.

Browse, graze, mate: Food and company help animals in captivity

From tongue rolling alpacas to irritable yaks and perturbed pigs, new research has lifted the lid on why some farm and zoo animals cope well with captivity and others display signs of stress.

Researchers from Aberystwyth and Portsmouth universities in the UK have published the first large-scale study to identify which species of hoofed animals, known as ungulates, are better suited to captive environments and which require better husbandry if kept in captivity.

Advanced Melanoma Survival Improves Significantly When Immunotherapy is Given Before Targeted Therapy

A clinical trial led by clinicians at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center showed a remarkable 20 percent advantage in the two-year overall survival rate for people with advanced melanoma who first received immunotherapy (72 percent survival rate) versus those who initially got targeted therapies (52 percent survival rate). Progression-free survival, where the cancer is stable or improving, was also trending in favor of those who started on immunotherapy.

What if some stress actually protects your body?

Stress has been linked to all sorts of serious health issues, from insomnia to high blood pressure, obesity and even heart disease. But it’s generally acknowledged that some stress can also be helpful, like when someone’s chasing a work deadline. But what if some level of stress can actually protect the body? A new study by researchers at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, with findings published Sept. 26 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests the immune system may benefit from a measure of stress.

First global survey of mayors shows urgent climate, infrastructure, equity challenges

A new global survey of city leaders underscores pressing challenges facing municipalities, including rising inequality, extreme heat and flood risks exacerbated by climate change, and a need to rebalance transportation systems that overly favor private automobiles.

UTHealth Houston study: Lower cancer screening rates differ by region, tied to social vulnerability

Populations in U.S. counties defined as more vulnerable based on social factors including socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority status were significantly less likely to receive timely breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, according to research from UTHealth Houston.