Thirdhand smoke impacts gut bacteria for infants, study finds

Infants exposed to thirdhand smoke while hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) show a difference in the composition of their gut microbiome, according to a new study by researchers with The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Association between Hypertension and Gut Microbiome Imbalance during Pregnancy May Lead to New Preeclampsia Treatments

Article title: Gestational gut microbial remodeling is impaired in a rat model of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension Authors: Jeanne A. Ishimwe, Adesanya Akinleye, Ashley C. Johnson, Michael R. Garrett, Jennifer M. Sasser From the authors: “These results reveal an…

Gut Microbiome Manipulation Could Result from Virus Discovery

Scientists have discovered how a common virus in the human gut infects and takes over bacterial cells – a finding that could be used to control the composition of the gut microbiome, which is important for human health. The Rutgers co-authored research, which could aid efforts to engineer beneficial bacteria that produce medicines and fuels and clean up pollutants, is published in the journal Nature.

Study Provides First Evidence of a Relationship between a Bird’s Gut and its Brain

A study of the relationships between cognition and the gut microbiome of captive zebra finches showed that their gut microbiome characteristics were related to performance on a cognitive assay where they learned a novel foraging technique. Researchers also identified potentially critical bacteria that were relatively more abundant in birds that performed better on this assay. This correlation provides some of the first evidence of a relationship between a bird’s gut microbiome and its brain.

Surprising Players in Acute Liver Failure Point to Potential Treatment, Weizmann Institute Scientists Find

Liver failure – often due to acetaminophen overdose – is fatal in 80% of cases. The labs of Profs. Ido Amit and Eran Elinav discovered three liver-cell subsets that contribute to disease progression, and found that depleting the microbiome acts on those subsets to reduce liver damage and increase survival rates. The research may lead to treatments for liver failure.

T Cell Therapy, Gut Microbiome, Tumorigenicity, and More Featured in September 2020 Toxicological Sciences

Toxicological Sciences features leading research in toxicology in the areas of biomarkers, environmental toxicology, and more in the September 2020 issue.

Mayo scientists develop mathematical index to distinguish healthy microbiome from diseased

What causes some people to develop chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and metabolic syndrome while others stay healthy? A major clue could be found in their gut microbiome — the trillions of microbes living inside the digestive system that regulate various bodily functions.

Major weight loss — whether from surgery or diet — has same metabolic benefits

A longstanding theory has suggested that gastric bypass surgery may have unique, weight loss-independent effects in treating type 2 diabetes. But new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis indicates that weight loss after surgery, rather than the surgery itself, drives metabolic improvements, such as the remission of diabetes.

The Gut Microbiome, CRISPR/Cas-9, and More Featured in August 2020 Toxicological Sciences

The August 2020 issue of Toxicological Sciences includes exciting advances in toxicology research. The edition features pieces on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; and more.

Gut Microbiome Translates Stress Into Sickle Cell Crises

A new study shows how chronic psychological stress leads to painful vessel-clogging episodes—the most common complication of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and a frequent cause of hospitalizations. The findings, made in mice, show that the gut microbiome plays a key role in triggering those episodes and reveals possible ways to prevent them. The research was conducted by scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and published online today in Immunity.

Next-Generation Risk Assessment, Antimicrobials, and More Featured in July 2020 Toxicological Sciences

Published in this month’s edition of Toxicological Sciences are articles on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; nanotoxicology; and more.

Antibiotics in Early Life Slows Digestive Nerve Function, Alters Microbiome

Article title: Antibiotic exposure postweaning disrupts the neurochemistry and function of enteric neurons mediating colonic motor activity Authors: Lin Y. Hung, Pavitha Parathan, Prapaporn Boonma, Qinglong Wu, Yi Wang, Anthony Haag, Ruth Ann Luna, Joel C. Bornstein, Tor C. Savidge, Jaime…

Infants Introduced Early to Solid Foods Show Gut Bacteria Changes that May Portend Future Health Risks

Infants who were started on solid foods at or before three months of age showed changes in the levels of gut bacteria and bacterial byproducts, called short-chain fatty acids, measured in their stool samples, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.