A substance produced by gut microorganisms can lead to scarring and blood vessel damage in patients with scleroderma, a new study suggests. Researchers say they will examine whether drugs or food products, like virgin olive oil, can block the formation of the compound in the gut to treat fibrosis.
Treating allergic mice with a form of butyrate — which is produced by good gut bacteria — protects against peanut allergy, scientists report today. The treatment might also counteract other food allergies and inflammatory diseases. They will present their results at ACS Fall 2022.
A team of researchers led by the University of California, Irvine has discovered that treatment with an extract from the roots of the Rhodiola rosea plant might be effective for helping manage type 2 diabetes, showing promise as a safe and effective non-pharmaceutical alternative. The study, recently published online in Scientific Reports, found that in a mouse model of human type 2 diabetes, Rhodiola rosea lowered fasting blood sugar levels, improved response to insulin injections, modulated the composition of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and decreased several biomarkers of inflammation.
Article title: Abnormal intestinal milieu in post-traumatic stress disorder is not impacted by treatment that improves symptoms Authors: Robin M. Voigt, Alyson K. Zalta, Shohreh Raeisi, Lijuan Zhang, J. Mark Brown, Christopher B. Forsyth, Randy A. Boley, Philip Held, Mark…
A new approach that uses artificial intelligence shows how to use microorganisms in the body and molecules in cells to predict human health outcomes, according to Penn State College of Medicine and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center researchers.
In a pilot study, researchers in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry report that compared to their pre-trial microbiome, men who drank either one alcoholic or non-alcoholic lager daily had a more diverse set of gut microbes, which can reduce the risk for some diseases.
Two studies led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center that shed new light on the potential of the gut microbiome as a targetable biomarker to improve responses to immunotherapy were presented today at the 2022 American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.
Cedars-Sinai physicians and scientists will share their latest advancements and research at Digestive Disease Week, known as DDW, an international scientific and clinical meeting featuring the work of physicians and researchers in gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy, and gastrointestinal surgery. DDW will take place May 21-24 in San Diego, California, and is available for virtual attendance.
New research in rats finds specific bacteria populations in the mouth and on the skin may be beneficial in blood pressure regulation. The first-of-its-kind study is published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.
A study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard suggests that women who get recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) may be caught in a vicious cycle in which antibiotics given to eradicate one infection predispose them to develop another.
Researchers gleaned their results by analyzing blood and biopsy samples from two groups totalling 18 people with Crohn’s disease, comparing them to a matching number of people from two healthy control groups. A mouse model of IBD was also used. Khan said his study was the first demonstration of the interaction between serotonin, autophagy and gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation. The paper was published by Science Advances today. Sabah Haq, a PhD student who works with Khan, is first author.
Cleveland Clinic researchers have shown for the first time that diet-associated molecules in the gut are associated with aggressive prostate cancer, suggesting dietary interventions may help reduce risk. Findings from the study were published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
A high-fat diet increases the incidence of colorectal cancer. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Fellow Semir Beyaz and collaborators from Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have discovered that in mice, fat disrupts the relationship between intestinal cells and the immune cells that patrol them looking for emerging tumors.
Eating yogurt containing a particular strain of a well-studied probiotic appears to protect against harmful changes in the gut microbiome that are associated with antibiotic administration.
In the study, published recently in Science, researchers discovered that most bacteria in the gut microbiome are heritable after looking at more than 16,000 gut microbiome profiles collected over 14 years from a long-studied population of baboons in Kenya’s Amboseli National Park.
Many people don’t realize that the trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing within the gastrointestinal tract––collectively called the gut microbiome–– are connected to overall health, and specifically to cancer.
A groundbreaking study found that stem cells reduce the amount of virus causing AIDS, boost the body’s antiviral immunity, and restore the gut’s lymphoid follicles damaged by HIV. It provided a roadmap for multi-pronged HIV eradication strategies.
Diet rich in sugar and fat leads to disruption in the gut’s microbial culture and contributes to inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Research shows that switching to a more balanced diet restores the gut’s health and suppresses inflammation.
New paper explores links among the diet, gut microbiota and health status.
Infants exposed to thirdhand smoke while hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) show a difference in the composition of their gut microbiome, according to a new study by researchers with The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Article title: Gestational gut microbial remodeling is impaired in a rat model of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension Authors: Jeanne A. Ishimwe, Adesanya Akinleye, Ashley C. Johnson, Michael R. Garrett, Jennifer M. Sasser From the authors: “These results reveal an…
A phase II clinical trial shows that changing the gut microbiome through fecal transplant can transform cancer patients who never responded to immunotherapy into patients who do.
Scientists have discovered how a common virus in the human gut infects and takes over bacterial cells – a finding that could be used to control the composition of the gut microbiome, which is important for human health. The Rutgers co-authored research, which could aid efforts to engineer beneficial bacteria that produce medicines and fuels and clean up pollutants, is published in the journal Nature.
ILSI North America hosts Dr. Jaeyun Sung of the Mayo Clinic to discuss with participants the development of a gut microbiome-based health index.
Washington D.C. — Building consistent ways to measure intestinal processes can improve our understanding of how diet, nutrition and health interact. Three expert groups are converging to inform standards for characterizing the “gut microbiome” — the collection of bacteria and…
A study of the relationships between cognition and the gut microbiome of captive zebra finches showed that their gut microbiome characteristics were related to performance on a cognitive assay where they learned a novel foraging technique. Researchers also identified potentially critical bacteria that were relatively more abundant in birds that performed better on this assay. This correlation provides some of the first evidence of a relationship between a bird’s gut microbiome and its brain.
Liver failure – often due to acetaminophen overdose – is fatal in 80% of cases. The labs of Profs. Ido Amit and Eran Elinav discovered three liver-cell subsets that contribute to disease progression, and found that depleting the microbiome acts on those subsets to reduce liver damage and increase survival rates. The research may lead to treatments for liver failure.
Toxicological Sciences features leading research in toxicology in the areas of biomarkers, environmental toxicology, and more in the September 2020 issue.
What causes some people to develop chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and metabolic syndrome while others stay healthy? A major clue could be found in their gut microbiome — the trillions of microbes living inside the digestive system that regulate various bodily functions.
New research in mice suggests a protein found predominately in white blood cells helps keep gastrointestinal bacteria in balance and may protect against metabolic disorders.
University of Illinois Chicago researchers have found associations among disrupted sleep, blood pressure and changes in the gut microbiome.The research aimed to determine whether 28-day period of disrupted sleep changed the microbiota in rats.
A longstanding theory has suggested that gastric bypass surgery may have unique, weight loss-independent effects in treating type 2 diabetes. But new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis indicates that weight loss after surgery, rather than the surgery itself, drives metabolic improvements, such as the remission of diabetes.
The August 2020 issue of Toxicological Sciences includes exciting advances in toxicology research. The edition features pieces on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; and more.
A new study shows how chronic psychological stress leads to painful vessel-clogging episodes—the most common complication of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and a frequent cause of hospitalizations. The findings, made in mice, show that the gut microbiome plays a key role in triggering those episodes and reveals possible ways to prevent them. The research was conducted by scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and published online today in Immunity.
Published in this month’s edition of Toxicological Sciences are articles on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; nanotoxicology; and more.
Children with type 1 diabetes have a less desirable gut microbiome composition which may play a role in the development of the disease, according to new research published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Article title: Antibiotic exposure postweaning disrupts the neurochemistry and function of enteric neurons mediating colonic motor activity Authors: Lin Y. Hung, Pavitha Parathan, Prapaporn Boonma, Qinglong Wu, Yi Wang, Anthony Haag, Ruth Ann Luna, Joel C. Bornstein, Tor C. Savidge, Jaime…
A new study finds antibiotic exposure during crucial developmental periods in early childhood alters digestive tract nerve function and bacterial colonies. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
Satya Dandekar, professor of microbiology and chairperson of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at UC Davis, honored by Prestigious NIH MERIT award for her illustrious journey in HIV research.
A 2003 hypothesis says Parkinson’s disease is caused by a gut pathogen that could spread to the brain through the nervous system. No evidence was found until now; researchers report for the first time a significant overabundance of a cluster of opportunistic pathogens in the PD gut.
A microbiome “fingerprint” method shows that an individualized mosaic of microbial strains is transmitted to the infant gut microbiome from a mother giving vaginal birth. The study analyzed existing metagenomic databases of fecal samples from mother-infant pairs and used a germfree mouse model.
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis studied the gut microbiomes of wild apes in the Republic of Congo, of captive apes in zoos in the U.S., and of people from around the world and discovered that lifestyle is more important than geography or even species in determining the makeup of the gut microbiome.
Infants who were started on solid foods at or before three months of age showed changes in the levels of gut bacteria and bacterial byproducts, called short-chain fatty acids, measured in their stool samples, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
A new literature review from scientists at George Washington University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology suggests that nutrition and diet have a profound impact on the microbial composition of the gut.
Article title: Distal colonic transit is linked to gut microbiota diversity and microbial fermentation in humans with slow colonic transit Authors: Mattea Müller, Gerben D.A. Hermes, Emanuel E. Canfora, Hauke Smidt, Ad A.M. Masclee, Erwin G. Zoetendal, Ellen E. Blaak From…
Scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine have identified a dead probiotic that reduces age-related leaky gut in older mice. The study is published in the journal GeroScience.
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis sheds light on how human gut microbes break down processed foods — especially potentially harmful chemical changes often produced during modern food manufacturing processes.