Human beings, like most organisms, are constantly exposed to alternating colder or warmer temperatures.
New research examines how cavefish developed unique metabolic adaptations to survive in nutrient-scarce environments. The study created a genome-wide map of liver tissue for two independent colonies of cavefish along with river fish to understand how cavefish metabolism evolved and how this may be applicable for humans.
Scientists have generated an atlas of the cell types present in the white adipose tissue of humans and in mice, allowing them to look at the composition of fat in unprecedented detail.
University of California San Diego researchers, with international colleagues, describe how energy expenditure and heat production are regulated in obesity through a previously unknown cellular pathway.
Today, Americans have access to what feels like an endless amount of workout routines, huge gyms, and even high-end home workout equipment like the Peloton.
Researchers studying the enzyme DHPS have determined that blocking its activity in mouse macrophages leads to a reduction in proteins that drive inflammation during obesity, leading to improved glycemic control.
Findings from a new University of Kentucky College of Medicine and College of Health Sciences study add to growing evidence that resistance exercise has unique benefits for fat loss.
The Department of Physiology and Center for Muscle Biology study published in the FASEB Journal found that resistance-like exercise regulates fat cell metabolism at a molecular level.
A new analysis from the STAMPEDE trial shows that over the course of five years, patients who had bariatric and metabolic surgery to treat uncontrolled type 2 diabetes reported greater physical health, more energy, less body pain, and less negative effects of diabetes in their daily lives, compared with patients who had medical therapy alone for their diabetes.
Long-term changes in psychosocial and emotional quality of life measures were not significantly different between the surgical and medical groups. The research was published in the Annals of Surgery.
Toxicological Sciences delivers the latest toxicology research in the July 2021 issue. The issue features investigations in delivers the latest toxicology research in areas such as exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, effects of ENDS vapors on amino acid metabolism, and more.
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (July 8, 2021) — VAI’s newest scientific recruit wants to rewrite the story of mitochondria, the cellular machinery that produces and manages the body’s energy supply.
Researchers are finding new details on the complex dynamics involved in how organisms sense an infection from pathogens. The researchers found that worms can sense changes in their metabolism in order to unleash protective defenses, even if they don’t directly sense an incursion from pathogens.
MD Anderson researchers have discovered a new role for the metabolic enzyme, MCAD, in glioblastoma. The enzyme prevents toxic fatty acid accumulation, in addition to its normal role in energy production, and targeting MCAD led to irreversible damage and cell death specifically in cancer cells.
Two experimental drug approaches that target vulnerabilities in cancer cell metabolism may extend survival and enhance the effectiveness of standard chemotherapies for a highly aggressive type of pediatric brain cancer.
A new multi-institution study led by a team of researchers at the David Geffen School of Medicine demonstrated that blocking a protein called ABCB10 in liver cells protects against high blood sugar and fatty liver disease in obese mice. ABCB10 activity also prompted insulin resistance in human liver cells.
By mapping its genetic underpinnings, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have identified a predictive causal role for specific cell types in type 1 diabetes, a condition that affects more than 1.6 million Americans.
A new study with zebrafish shows that a deadly form of skin cancer — melanoma — alters the metabolism of healthy tissues elsewhere in the body. The research from Washington University in St. Louis suggests that these other tissues could potentially be targeted to help treat cancer.“Tumors rely on a constant supply of nutrients to grow.
2021 marks 100 years since researchers identified insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Soon after, insulin was shown to be effective in lowering blood glucose in humans with…
Weizmann Institute scientists analyzed around six million blood tests to obtain data on several types of hormones, discovering that some peak in winter/spring and others in summer. Peaks in stress or reproductive hormones may have “evolved to help us cope with seasonal changes in our surrounding environment.”
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (Feb. 3, 2021) — A pair of scientists from Van Andel Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have been granted a three-year, $1.5 million Allen Distinguished Investigator award from The Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, a division of the Allen Institute, to better understand how diet and metabolism influence the immune system’s ability to fight off threats such as infections.
University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center researchers report that intermittent fasting reduced breast cancer risk in obese mice.
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine, in collaboration with Dutch scientists, have found that certain metabolites — small molecules produced by the process of metabolism — may be predictive indicators for persons at risk for recurrent major depressive disorder.
New research suggests that high-intensity interval exercise may help burn more fat when performed in cold weather. The first-of-its-kind study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.
Antibiotics for cesarean section births are just as effective when they’re given after the umbilical cord is clamped as before clamping – the current practice – and could benefit newborns’ developing microbiomes, according to Rutgers co-authored research. The study, by far the largest of its kind and published in the journal Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, challenges current recommendations for antibiotic use. Administering antibiotics after clamping does not increase the risk of infection at the site of C-section incisions, the study concludes.
New study in mice finds that a high-fat diet allows cancer cells to outcompete immune cells for fuel, impairing immune function and accelerating tumor growth. Findings suggest new strategies to target cancer metabolism, improve immunotherapies.
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have developed a novel targeted therapy, called POMHEX, which blocks critical metabolic pathways in cancer cells with specific genetic defects. Preclinical studies found the small-molecule enolase inhibitor to be effective in killing brain cancer cells that were missing ENO1, one of two genes encoding the enolase enzyme.
While prostate cancer originates within the prostate, metastasis, or the spread of a tumor from the site of origin to other organs, remains a leading cause of death among people with the disease. Prostate tumors can metastasize to a number of different organs, including the liver, lymph nodes and bone.
Scientists at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have identified how metabolic signaling pathways influence key immune cells with implications for treating autoimmune disorders and cancer.
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown way that pancreatic cells decide how much insulin to secrete. It could provide a promising new target to develop drugs for boosting insulin production in people with Type 2 diabetes.
Research shows that many marine animals already inhabit the maximum range of breathable ocean that their physiology allows. The findings are a warning about climate change: Since warmer waters harbor less oxygen, stretches of ocean that are breathable today for a species may not be in the future.
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that fructose only adversely affects the liver after it reaches the intestines, where the sugar disrupts the epithelial barrier protecting internal organs from bacterial toxins in the gut.
Penn Study Reveals A Molecular Mechanism That Helps The Body Mount Perfectly Balanced Responses to Deadly Infections
Scientists have discovered that one of the good bacteria found in the human gut has a benefit that has remained unrecognized until now: the potential to reduce the risk for heart disease.
After one consumes food or a beverage containing fructose, the gut helps to shield the liver from damage by breaking down the sugar. However, the consumption of too much fructose can overwhelm the gut, causing fructose to “spill over” into the liver, where it wreaks havoc and causes fatty liver, researchers discovered.
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The 2020 Warren Alpert Foundation Prize has been awarded to a trio of researchers for seminal discoveries about the function of key intestinal hormones, their effects on metabolism and the subsequent design of treatments for type 2 diabetes, obesity and short bowel syndrome.
Yale Cancer Center scientists have identified mutations in metabolite-producing genes as a disruption of DNA repair. These mutation-driven “oncometabolites” may make cells more prone to developing cancer—but also more vulnerable to new cancer treatment strategies.
Scientists have been studying cyanobacteria and its many potential applications for decades, from cutting CO2 emissions to creating a substitute for oil-based plastics, but there wasn’t a deep understanding of the full life cycle and metabolism of specialized compartments within these common bacteria – until now.
Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets. Their study, which predicts what the earliest proteins looked like 3.5 billion to 2.5 billion years ago, is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
New discovery in breast cancer could lead to better strategies for preventing the spread of cancer cells to other organs in the body, effectively reducing mortality in breast cancer patients.
According to a study, published today in Nature Cell Biology, breast cancer cells shift their metabolic strategy in order to metastasize. Instead of cycling sugar (glucose) for energy, they preferentially use mitochondrial metabolism.
A Roswell Park team has identified a new strategy for treating prostate cancer — the first to target metabolic processes uniquely important to prostate cancer.
Eating a big breakfast rather than a large dinner may prevent obesity and high blood sugar, according to new research published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Cancer-fighting compound fights obesity and diabetes: Eric Prossnitz, PhD, and his team reported that G-1, a cancer-fighting compound they discovered some years ago, reduces fat in obese mice. Although G-1 is currently in phase 1 clinical trials for cancer, Prossnitz and his team are planning preclinical studies to use G-1 to fight fat in obese people.
A cell found in mice may be able to stop feeding in humans without subsequential nauseating effects as well as influence the long term intake of food.
Weekend binge drinking and chronic alcoholism have long been known to contribute to alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). A new study reveals how alcohol affects the liver’s circadian rhythm, uncovering a potential new target for ALD treatments.
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have identified a combination of two anti-cancer compounds that shrank pancreatic tumors in mice—supporting the immediate evaluation of the drugs in a clinical trial. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved versions of the compounds are used today to treat certain leukemias and solid tumors, including melanoma. The study was published in Nature Cell Biology.
Recent study found that an effective blood cancer treatment was associated with weight gain, obesity, and increased systolic blood pressure
The recent development of physiologic cell culture media, which models in vivo conditions, holds immense potential to improve understanding of human biology.
Subtle changes in the DNA of mitochondria, the tiny power plants in cells, can have profound consequences for a patient’s health. Research on biological mechanisms suggests that relatively minor changes in mitochondrial energy flow and metabolism could offer significant future benefits to patients with complex diseases.
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (Oct. 10, 2019) — For years, scientists have used cells grown in petri dishes to study the metabolic processes that fuel the immune system. But a new report in Immunity suggests looking outside the dish and into living organisms gives a drastically different view of the way immune cells process and use energy.
There’s no question that as body weight increases, so too does blood pressure. Now, in a study of mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have revealed exactly which molecules are likely responsible for the link between obesity and blood pressure. Blocking one of these molecules — a signaling channel that’s found in a tiny organ on the side of your neck — effectively lowers blood pressure in obese mice, the researchers reported recently in the journal Circulation Research.