The human body runs on a finely tuned clock synchronized to the 24-hour cycle of Earth’s rotation, known as the circadian clock, which controls various physiological processes such as the sleep-wake cycle, hormone production, and metabolism.
For the first time, researchers at UC San Diego have shown that changes in gene expression happen almost entirely during the transcription stage while the cells are growing. The researchers have provided a simple quantitative formula linking regulatory control to mRNA and protein levels.
Article title: Whole blood transcriptome characterization of young female triathlon athletes following an endurance exercise: a pilot study Authors: Attila Bácsi, András Penyige, Gergely Becs, Szilvia Benkő, Elek Gergő Kovács, Csaba Jenei, István Pócsi, József Balla, László Csernoch, Ildikó Balatoni…
Early life experiences can impact the activity of our genes much later on and even affect longevity, finds a new study in fruit flies led by UCL researchers.
The types of ocean bacteria known to absorb carbon dioxide from the air require more energy – in the form of carbon – and other resources when they’re simultaneously infected by viruses and face attack from nearby predators, new research has found.
National Eye Institute researchers mapped the organization of human retinal cell chromatin, the fibers that package 3 billion nucleotide-long DNA molecules into compact structures that fit into chromosomes within each cell’s nucleus. The resulting comprehensive gene regulatory network provides insights into regulation of gene expression in general, and in retinal function, in both rare and common eye diseases. The study published in Nature Communications.
Article title: Proteogenomics reveals sex-biased aging genes and coordinated splicing in cardiac aging Authors: Yu Han, Sara A. Wennersten, Julianna M. Wright, R. W. Ludwig, Edward Lau, Maggie P. Y. Lam From the authors: “In summary, this study shows that…
Mount Sinai researchers have published one of the first studies to demonstrate the importance of reactive oxygen species in maintaining stem cell function and preventing inflammation during wound repair, which could provide greater insights into the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), according to findings published in the journal Gut on October 3.
Article title: Human skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor gene expression in elderly males performing heavy resistance exercise Authors: Casper Soendenbroe, Mette F. Heisterberg, Peter Schjerling, Michael Kjaer, Jesper L. Andersen, Abigail L. Mackey From the authors: “Taken together, the results demonstrate…
A recent publication from researchers at the University of Kentucky explains the importance of identifying and understanding how differences between tissues and cells alter gene expression without changing the underlying genetic code.
Scientists are starting to understand the precise workings of a type of gene that, unlike other genes, does not code for proteins – the building blocks of life.
Scientists have identified two subtypes of lung blood vessel cells. One subtype expresses more genes involved in inflammation and the regulation of the immune response; the other expresses more genes involved in cell regeneration and proliferation. The findings could lead to better treatments for lung infections.
Researchers seek to point a way toward a unified theory for how DNA changes shape when expressing genes. Presenting their work in Biophysics Reviews, the scientists use an approach called statistical mechanics to explore the phenomenon of so-called expression waves of gene regulation.
Genes can be expressed in different ways depending on how cells process their messengers, aka splicing isoforms. Genetic mutations can damage some splicing isoforms but not others. UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers found that splicing isoforms hit by…
A discovery from researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago may lead to new treatments for individuals who suffer from alcohol use disorder and depression. The study, “Transcriptomics identifies STAT3 as a key regulator of hippocampal gene expression and anhedonia during withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure,” is published in the journal Translational Psychiatry by researchers at UIC’s Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics.
MEDIA ADVISORY Senior Author: Ash Tewari, MBBS, MCh, Professor and System Chairman of the Milton and Carroll Petrie Department of Urology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Director of the Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancer…
St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have developed a highly efficient method to address a major challenge in biology—identifying the genetic ‘switches’ that regulate gene expression.
Mount Sinai researchers have discovered that Polycomb complexes, groups of proteins that maintain gene expression patterns, are essential for proper skin development, according to a paper published in Genes & Development on February 18.
A new deep-learning model that can predict how human genes and medicines will interact has identified at least 10 compounds that may hold promise as treatments for COVID-19.
The five-year, $680,500 NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program award will be utilized to gain a better understanding of how improper DNA replication and compaction can cause changes in gene expression in offspring while creating a comprehensive learning environment for aspiring high school-aged and undergraduate scientists who will have significant roles in the research.
New York University researchers have created a “developmental atlas” of gene expression in neurons, using gene sequencing and machine learning to categorize more than 250,000 neurons in the brains of fruit flies. Their study, published in Nature, finds that neurons exhibit the most molecular diversity during development and reveals a previously unknown type of neurons only present before flies hatch.
Researchers reporting in ACS’ Environmental Science & Technology have used a combination of laboratory experiments and computer modeling to reveal that PFASs can interact with the estrogen receptor in different ways to influence estrogen-controlled gene expression.
Rutgers School of Public Health assistant professor, Wei (Vivian) Li, has received a Busch Biomedical Grant to develop a statistical method and software package that will integrate single-cell level gene expression data from multiple patients, studies, and technological platforms to understand disease-associated cell types and RNA contents, helping researchers develop personalized treatments.
September’s edition of SLAS Discovery features the cover article, “Applications of Functional Genomics for Drug Discovery” by Ami M. Kabadi, Ph.D., (Element Genomics), Eoin McDonnell, Ph.D. (Element Genomics), Christopher L. Frank, Ph.D., (Element Genomics), and Lauren Drowley, Ph.D., (UCB Biosciences). The article reviews how functional genomic tools are better able to understand the biological interplay between genes, improving disease modeling and identifying novel drug targets.
The August 2020 issue of Toxicological Sciences includes exciting advances in toxicology research. The edition features pieces on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; and more.
Article title: Silencing of MYH7 ameliorates disease phenotypes in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes Authors: Alexandra Dainis, Kathia Zaleta-Rivera, Alexandre Ribeiro, Andrew Chia Hao Chang, Ching Shang, Feng Lan, Paul W. Burridge, W. Robert Liu, Joseph C. Wu, Alex Chia Yu Chang, Beth…
A team led by Dan Jacobson of the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory used the Summit supercomputer at ORNL to analyze genes from cells in the lung fluid of nine COVID-19 patients compared with 40 control patients.
A multinational research team emphasizes the clinical need to understand the characteristics of epigenetic regulation of reproductive function and the underlying mechanisms of adaptive responses for properly informed decisions on treating patients from diverse backgrounds.
Researchers at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center analyzed gene-expression patterns in the most aggressive prostate cancer grade group — known as Gleason grade group 5 — and found that this grade of cancer can actually be subdivided into four subtypes with distinct differences. The findings may affect how people are treated for the disease.
The behavior of previous coronaviruses together with physiological characteristics of diabetes may help explain why people with diabetes have a higher risk of developing COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
Research in sheep suggests that high levels of a stress hormone during pregnancy may alter gene expression in multiple muscle groups of offspring. These shifts may affect heart, breathing and skeletal muscle function, and could potentially increase risks of inflammation and infection. The study is published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.
A group of University of Chicago scientists has uncovered a previously unknown way that our genes are made into reality. Rather than directions going one-way from DNA to RNA to proteins, the latest study shows that RNA itself modulates how DNA is transcribed—using a chemical process that is increasingly apparent to be vital to biology. The discovery has significant implications for our understanding of human disease and drug design.
A new technique reported in Science offers more detail, at the single cell level, on how large, pooled samples of various cells react to drugs or other agents. The data might reveal mode of action or the effect of genetic differences in varying responses.
Cellular machines that control chromosome structure, such as the RSC complex, are mutated in about one-fifth of all human cancers. Now, for the first time, scientists have developed a high-resolution visual map of this multi-protein machine, elucidating how the RSC complex works and what role it has in healthy and cancer cells.
In cinema and science fiction, one small change in the past can have major, sometimes life-changing effects in the future. Using a series of snapshots, researchers recently captured such so-called “butterfly effects” in heart muscle cell development, and say this…
Scientists consider the form that may be “just right” for scripting gene expression The Goldilocks of fairy-tale fame knew something about porridge. It needed to be just right—neither too hot nor too cold. Same with furniture—neither too hard nor too…