Let’s get small: New Argonne method greatly improves X-ray nanotomography resolution

Using X-rays to study batteries and electronics at nanometer scales requires extremely high resolution. Argonne scientists led an effort to build a new instrument and devise a new algorithm to greatly improve the resolution for nanotomography.

SLAS Discovery’s August Special Collection “Approaches for Prioritizing High-Quality Chemical Matter in Chemical Probe and Drug Discovery” Now Available

The August edition of SLAS Discovery is a Special Collection featuring the cover article, “Approaches for Prioritizing High-Quality Chemical Matter in Chemical Probe and Drug Discovery” by Jayme L. Dahlin, M.D., Ph.D. (Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA).

Mouse brain imaged from the microscopic to the macroscopic level

Researchers at the University of Chicago and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have leveraged existing advanced X-ray microscopy techniques to bridge the gap between MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and electron microscopy imaging, providing a viable pipeline for multiscale whole brain imaging within the same brain

Underwater robot offers new insight into mid-ocean “twilight zone”

An innovative underwater robot known as Mesobot is providing researchers with deeper insight into the vast mid-ocean region known as the “twilight zone.” Capable of tracking and recording high-resolution images of slow-moving and fragile zooplankton, gelatinous animals, and particles, Mesobot greatly expands scientists’ ability to observe creatures in their mesopelagic habitat with minimal disturbance. This advance in engineering will enable greater understanding of the role these creatures play in transporting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the deep sea, as well as how commercial exploitation of twilight zone fisheries might affect the marine ecosystem.

UCI-led team awarded $2.3 million by California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine

Scientists have grown small amounts of self-organizing brain tissue, known as organoids, in a tiny 3D-printed system that allows observation while they grow and develop. The advance uses 3D printing to create a reusable and easily adjustable platform that costs only about $5 per unit to fabricate, and the design includes imaging wells for the growing organoids and microfluidic channels to provide a nutrient medium and preheating that supports tissue growth. The work is reported in Biomicrofluidics.

Using Holographic Endoscopes to Observe Distant Objects

Scientists are developing tools to observe the biological machinery in in vivo animal models to be able to understand and better treat severe brain diseases, and holographic endoscopes attracted interest because of their potential to conduct minimally invasive observations. In APL Photonics, researchers in Germany created a particularly narrow endoscope made of single hair-thin optical fibers that uses holographic methods to reconstruct images of macroscopic objects placed in front of the far end of the endoscope.

‘Leap forward’ in risk management of rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, along with colon cancer, is the third-most common type of cancer in the United States, and treatment and surgery greatly affect the quality of life of patients. A multi-disciplinary team at Washington University in St. Louis has developed and tested an innovative imaging technique that is able to differentiate between rectal tissues with residual cancers and those without tumors after chemotherapy and radiation, which could one day help to avoid unnecessary surgeries in some patients who have achieved complete tumor destruction after chemoradiation.

Black and Latinx Children Less Likely to Get Diagnostic Imaging During Emergency Visits to Children’s Hospitals

The first large study of more than 13 million visits to 44 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) found that Black and Latinx children were less likely to receive x-rays, CT, ultrasound, and MRI compared with white children. These findings, published in JAMA Network Open, were consistent across most diagnostic groups and persisted when stratified by public or private insurance type.

Measuring Hemoglobin Levels with AI Microscope, Microfluidic Chips

A complete blood count can help ascertain the health of a patient and typically includes an estimate of the hemoglobin concentration, which can indicate several conditions, including anemia, polycythemia, and pulmonary fibrosis. In AIP Advances, researchers describe a new AI-powered imaging-based tool to estimate hemoglobin levels. The setup was developed in conjunction with a microfluidic chip and an AI-powered automated microscope that was designed for deriving the total as well as differential counts of blood cells.

Inside the battery in 3D: Powerful X-rays watch solid state batteries charging and discharging

Using high-speed X-ray tomography, researchers captured images of solid-state batteries in operation and gained new insights that may improve their efficiency.

Mammography Protections in Year End Legislation Help Address Breast Cancer Care Disparities

The American College of Radiology® (ACR®), Society of Breast Imaging® (SBI®), patient advocates and others secured an extension of the moratorium on harmful 2009 and 2016 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines from Dec. 31, 2021 to Dec. 31, 2022. Without this added protection gained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (Omnibus and Coronavirus Relief Bill), under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), mammography coverage for women younger than 50 may have been impacted starting Jan. 1, 2022. The newly passed bill ensures that women ages 40 and older who want annual screening mammograms will retain insurance coverage with no copay.

NSF’s Inouye Solar Telescope Releases First Image of a Sunspot

The U.S. NSF’s Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope just released its first image of a sunspot. The telescope’s four-meter primary mirror will give the best views of the Sun from Earth throughout the next solar cycle. This image is an indication of the telescope’s advanced optics. The image is released along with the first of a series of Inouye-related articles featured in the Solar Physics Journal.

University of Miami Health System and 4DMedical Launch Research Program Advancing Breakthrough Lung Technology

UHealth – the University of Miami Health System, the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, and 4DMedical recently announced the creation of the Functional Lung Imaging Research Program in the Department of Medicine’s Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine at the Miller School.

UCLA, UCSF gain FDA approval for prostate cancer imaging technique

The University of California’s two nationally ranked medical centers, UCSF and UCLA, and their nuclear medicine teams have obtained approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to offer a new imaging technique for prostate cancer that locates cancer lesions in the pelvic area and other parts of the body to which the tumors have migrated.

Virginia Tech researchers show teens with risk-averse peers make safer choices

In a new study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Virginia Tech neuroscientists at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC show that observing peers making sound decisions may help young people play it safe. The discovery may one day inform measures to help teens make healthy decisions.

Quantum X-ray Microscope Underway at Brookhaven Lab

UPTON, NY—Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have begun building a quantum-enhanced x-ray microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). This groundbreaking microscope, supported by the Biological and Environmental Research progam at DOE’s Office of Science, will enable researchers to image biomolecules like never before.

Study Finds that 41% of Radiologists Changed Jobs Over 4 Years

A new Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute study showed that nearly 20% of radiologists separated from a practice in a single year, indicating that radiology is impacted by broader workforce trends toward job hopping. This Journal of American College of Radiology (JACR) study tracked recent trends and characteristics of radiologist-practice separation across the United States.

Brain microstructural and metabolic alterations detected in vivo at the onset of the first demyelinating event

Background: In early multiple sclerosis, a clearer understanding of normal-brain tissue microstructural and metabolic abnormalities will provide valuable insights into its pathophysiology. Here, we studied the brain of patients with their first demyelinating episode using neurite orientation dispersion and density…

Mapping Cavefish Brains Leads to Neural Origin of Behavioral Evolution

While studied for nearly a century, little is known about how cavefish brains differ. A study is the first to look inside their brains with millimeter resolution to start to understand how the individual neurons and brain regions that drive complex behaviors, including sleep and feeding have evolved. This work has broad implications for the understanding of how brains evolve in many different animal models and is hoped to be widely used by the scientific community.

New dopamine sensors could help unlock the mysteries of brain chemistry

In 2018, Tian Lab at UC Davis Health developed dLight1, a single fluorescent protein-based biosensor. This sensor allows high resolution, real-time imaging of the spatial and temporal release of dopamine in live animals. Now, the team expanded the color spectrum of dLight1 to YdLight1 and RdLight1. The increased light penetration and imaging depth of these variants provide enhanced dopamine signal quality allowing researchers to optically dissect dopamine’s release and model its effects on neural circuits.

University of Miami Health System researchers publish overview of evidence that COVID-19’s impact affects much more than the lungs

Studies suggest COVID-19 patients may at first present with atypical neurologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac and musculoskeletal imaging findings, which are more likely to go undiagnosed, according to the paper “Clinical Characteristics and Multisystem Imaging Findings of COVID-19: An Overview for Orthopedic Surgeons,” published August 17 in HHS Journal: the musculoskeletal journal of Hospital for Special Surgery.

New Study Evaluates the COVID-19 Impact on Imaging Volumes

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic many radiology departments have experienced a rapid decline in imaging case volumes. This new study, funded by the Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute and published online in Journal of the American College of Radiology (JACR), evaluates the impact of the pandemic on imaging case volumes using real-world data from a large healthcare institution.

Chest X-Rays in Emergency Rooms Can Help Predict Severity of COVID-19 Illness in Young and Middle-aged Adults

Chest X-rays performed on young and middle-aged adults with COVID-19 when they arrive at the emergency room can help doctors predict who is at higher risk of severe illness and intubation, Mount Sinai researchers report.

Scientists and neurosurgeon team up to develop novel imaging device for babies with brain disorders

Using night-vision goggle technology, near-infrared light, and high-resolution detectors, a wearable imaging device for awake infants with brain disorders was developed by a team of scientists and a pediatric neurosurgeon at UTHealth. Cap-based Transcranial Optical Tomography (CTOT), which utilizes a cap for the baby’s head, is the first high-resolution, whole-brain functional imaging device that does not require the baby to be put under anesthesia.

Cell Membrane Proteins Imaged in 3-D

A team of scientists including researchers at the National Synchrotron Light Source II have demonstrated a new technique for imaging proteins in 3-D with nanoscale resolution. Their work, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, enables researchers to identify the precise location of proteins within individual cells, reaching the resolution of the cell membrane and the smallest subcellular organelles.

Artificial Intelligence Enables Rapid COVID-19 Lung Imaging Analysis at UC San Diego Health

With support from Amazon Web Services, UC San Diego Health physicians are using AI in a clinical research study aimed at speeding the detection of pneumonia, a condition associated with severe COVID-19.

Ultrasound Solves an Important Clinical Problem in Diagnosing Arrhythmia

Columbia Engineering researchers have used an ultrasound technique they pioneered a decade ago–electromechanical wave imaging (EWI)–to accurately localize atrial and ventricular cardiac arrhythmias in adult patients in a double-blinded clinical study. They evaluated the accuracy of EWI for localization of various arrhythmias in all four chambers of the heart prior to catheter ablation: the results showed that EWI correctly predicted 96% of arrhythmia locations as compared with 71% for 12-lead ECGs.