Imaging

UCI-led team awarded $2.3 million by California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine

Scientists have grown small amounts of self-organizing brain tissue, known as organoids, in a tiny 3D-printed system that allows observation while they grow and develop. The advance uses 3D printing to create a reusable and easily adjustable platform that costs only about $5 per unit to fabricate, and the design includes imaging wells for the growing organoids and microfluidic channels to provide a nutrient medium and preheating that supports tissue growth. The work is reported in Biomicrofluidics.

Using Holographic Endoscopes to Observe Distant Objects

Scientists are developing tools to observe the biological machinery in in vivo animal models to be able to understand and better treat severe brain diseases, and holographic endoscopes attracted interest because of their potential to conduct minimally invasive observations. In APL Photonics, researchers in Germany created a particularly narrow endoscope made of single hair-thin optical fibers that uses holographic methods to reconstruct images of macroscopic objects placed in front of the far end of the endoscope.

‘Leap forward’ in risk management of rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, along with colon cancer, is the third-most common type of cancer in the United States, and treatment and surgery greatly affect the quality of life of patients. A multi-disciplinary team at Washington University in St. Louis has developed and tested an innovative imaging technique that is able to differentiate between rectal tissues with residual cancers and those without tumors after chemotherapy and radiation, which could one day help to avoid unnecessary surgeries in some patients who have achieved complete tumor destruction after chemoradiation.

Black and Latinx Children Less Likely to Get Diagnostic Imaging During Emergency Visits to Children’s Hospitals

The first large study of more than 13 million visits to 44 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) found that Black and Latinx children were less likely to receive x-rays, CT, ultrasound, and MRI compared with white children. These findings, published in JAMA Network Open, were consistent across most diagnostic groups and persisted when stratified by public or private insurance type.

Measuring Hemoglobin Levels with AI Microscope, Microfluidic Chips

A complete blood count can help ascertain the health of a patient and typically includes an estimate of the hemoglobin concentration, which can indicate several conditions, including anemia, polycythemia, and pulmonary fibrosis. In AIP Advances, researchers describe a new AI-powered imaging-based tool to estimate hemoglobin levels. The setup was developed in conjunction with a microfluidic chip and an AI-powered automated microscope that was designed for deriving the total as well as differential counts of blood cells.

Mammography Protections in Year End Legislation Help Address Breast Cancer Care Disparities

The American College of Radiology® (ACR®), Society of Breast Imaging® (SBI®), patient advocates and others secured an extension of the moratorium on harmful 2009 and 2016 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines from Dec. 31, 2021 to Dec. 31, 2022. Without this added protection gained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (Omnibus and Coronavirus Relief Bill), under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), mammography coverage for women younger than 50 may have been impacted starting Jan. 1, 2022. The newly passed bill ensures that women ages 40 and older who want annual screening mammograms will retain insurance coverage with no copay.

NSF’s Inouye Solar Telescope Releases First Image of a Sunspot

The U.S. NSF’s Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope just released its first image of a sunspot. The telescope’s four-meter primary mirror will give the best views of the Sun from Earth throughout the next solar cycle. This image is an indication of the telescope’s advanced optics. The image is released along with the first of a series of Inouye-related articles featured in the Solar Physics Journal.

UCLA, UCSF gain FDA approval for prostate cancer imaging technique

The University of California’s two nationally ranked medical centers, UCSF and UCLA, and their nuclear medicine teams have obtained approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to offer a new imaging technique for prostate cancer that locates cancer lesions in the pelvic area and other parts of the body to which the tumors have migrated.

Quantum X-ray Microscope Underway at Brookhaven Lab

UPTON, NY—Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have begun building a quantum-enhanced x-ray microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). This groundbreaking microscope, supported by the Biological and Environmental Research progam at DOE’s Office of Science, will enable researchers to image biomolecules like never before.

Study Finds that 41% of Radiologists Changed Jobs Over 4 Years

A new Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute study showed that nearly 20% of radiologists separated from a practice in a single year, indicating that radiology is impacted by broader workforce trends toward job hopping. This Journal of American College of Radiology (JACR) study tracked recent trends and characteristics of radiologist-practice separation across the United States.

Mapping Cavefish Brains Leads to Neural Origin of Behavioral Evolution

While studied for nearly a century, little is known about how cavefish brains differ. A study is the first to look inside their brains with millimeter resolution to start to understand how the individual neurons and brain regions that drive complex behaviors, including sleep and feeding have evolved. This work has broad implications for the understanding of how brains evolve in many different animal models and is hoped to be widely used by the scientific community.

New dopamine sensors could help unlock the mysteries of brain chemistry

In 2018, Tian Lab at UC Davis Health developed dLight1, a single fluorescent protein-based biosensor. This sensor allows high resolution, real-time imaging of the spatial and temporal release of dopamine in live animals. Now, the team expanded the color spectrum of dLight1 to YdLight1 and RdLight1. The increased light penetration and imaging depth of these variants provide enhanced dopamine signal quality allowing researchers to optically dissect dopamine’s release and model its effects on neural circuits.

University of Miami Health System researchers publish overview of evidence that COVID-19’s impact affects much more than the lungs

Studies suggest COVID-19 patients may at first present with atypical neurologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac and musculoskeletal imaging findings, which are more likely to go undiagnosed, according to the paper “Clinical Characteristics and Multisystem Imaging Findings of COVID-19: An Overview for Orthopedic Surgeons,” published August 17 in HHS Journal: the musculoskeletal journal of Hospital for Special Surgery.

New Study Evaluates the COVID-19 Impact on Imaging Volumes

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic many radiology departments have experienced a rapid decline in imaging case volumes. This new study, funded by the Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute and published online in Journal of the American College of Radiology (JACR), evaluates the impact of the pandemic on imaging case volumes using real-world data from a large healthcare institution.

Scientists and neurosurgeon team up to develop novel imaging device for babies with brain disorders

Using night-vision goggle technology, near-infrared light, and high-resolution detectors, a wearable imaging device for awake infants with brain disorders was developed by a team of scientists and a pediatric neurosurgeon at UTHealth. Cap-based Transcranial Optical Tomography (CTOT), which utilizes a cap for the baby’s head, is the first high-resolution, whole-brain functional imaging device that does not require the baby to be put under anesthesia.

Cell Membrane Proteins Imaged in 3-D

A team of scientists including researchers at the National Synchrotron Light Source II have demonstrated a new technique for imaging proteins in 3-D with nanoscale resolution. Their work, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, enables researchers to identify the precise location of proteins within individual cells, reaching the resolution of the cell membrane and the smallest subcellular organelles.

Ultrasound Solves an Important Clinical Problem in Diagnosing Arrhythmia

Columbia Engineering researchers have used an ultrasound technique they pioneered a decade ago–electromechanical wave imaging (EWI)–to accurately localize atrial and ventricular cardiac arrhythmias in adult patients in a double-blinded clinical study. They evaluated the accuracy of EWI for localization of various arrhythmias in all four chambers of the heart prior to catheter ablation: the results showed that EWI correctly predicted 96% of arrhythmia locations as compared with 71% for 12-lead ECGs.

COVID-19 Appears Less Severe in Children, Says Review in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

As outbreaks of COVID-19 disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue worldwide, there’s reassuring evidence that children have fewer symptoms and less severe disease. That’s among the insights provided by an expert review in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, the official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

COVID-19 Appears Less Severe in Children, Says Review in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

As outbreaks of COVID-19 disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue worldwide, there’s reassuring evidence that children have fewer symptoms and less severe disease. That’s among the insights provided by an expert review in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, the official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Robot Uses Artificial Intelligence and Imaging to Draw Blood

Rutgers engineers have created a tabletop device that combines a robot, artificial intelligence and near-infrared and ultrasound imaging to draw blood or insert catheters to deliver fluids and drugs. Their research results, published in the journal Nature Machine Intelligence, suggest that autonomous systems like the image-guided robotic device could outperform people on some complex medical tasks.

CHOP Researchers Develop Novel Approach to Capture Hard-to-View Portion of Colon in 3-D for the First Time

In a groundbreaking discovery, researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) developed a new imaging method that allows scientists to view the enteric nervous system (ENS) – a key part of the human colon – in three dimensions by making other colon cells that normally block it invisible. The ENS has previously only been visible in thin tissue slices that provide limited clinical information.

New Robot Does Superior Job Sampling Blood

In the future, robots could take blood samples, benefiting patients and healthcare workers alike. A Rutgers-led team has created a blood-sampling robot that performed as well or better than people, according to the first human clinical trial of an automated blood drawing and testing device.

New Tool Monitors Real Time Mutations In Flu

A Rutgers-led team has developed a tool to monitor influenza A virus mutations in real time, which could help virologists learn how to stop viruses from replicating. The gold nanoparticle-based probe measures viral RNA in live influenza A cells, according to a study in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. It is the first time in virology that experts have used imaging tools with gold nanoparticles to monitor mutations in influenza, with unparalleled sensitivity.