A research team led by Stony Brook University has used molecular biology and cryoelectron microscopy to successfully unravel the structure of bacterial appendages called P pili. The finding, published in Nature Communications, is a key step in order to target P pili in the infection process.
The surface of implants, as well as other medical devices, plays a significant role in the adsorption of oral proteins and the colonization by unwanted microorganisms (a process known as biofouling), according to a new study led by the University at Buffalo and the University of Regensburg.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center’s Research Highlights provides a glimpse into recently published studies in basic, translational and clinical cancer research from MD Anderson experts. Current advances include clinical studies to investigate novel treatment strategies, a new understanding of cancer precursor lesions, identifying a calcium signaling receptor, characterizing nodal immune flair after immunotherapy, a community screening tool for BRCA testing and a new method for diagnosing Clostridioides difficile infections.
UC San Diego Health physicians describe first known case of young, healthy adult experiencing central nervous system inflammation due to COVID-19, but without cognitive impairment.
A COVID tracker developed by IIASA researcher Asjad Naqvi, aims to identify, collect, and collate various official regional datasets for European countries, while also combining and homogenizing the data to help researchers and policymakers explore how the virus spreads.
Engineering, biochemistry and medical researchers from McMaster University have created a hand-held rapid test for bacterial infections that can produce accurate, reliable results in less than an hour, eliminating the need to send samples to a lab.
Researchers at the Helsinki Graduate School of Economics have found that the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines protect both vaccinated individuals and their unvaccinated adult household members against SARS-CoV-2 infections. The study, not yet peer-reviewed, used Finnish administrative datasets to examine the link between mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccines and infection risk among vaccinated individuals as well as their unvaccinated family members.
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine researchers report the widespread blood vessel dysfunction, or endothelial dysfunction, that results from the COVID-19 infection could contribute to erectile dysfunction, or ED, according to a study published in the World Journal of Men’s Health .
WFIRM scientists are tackling necrotizing enterocolitis with a human placental-derived stem cell (hPSC) therapy strategy that is showing promising results.
Researchers will study vaccinated and non-vaccinated health workers who get tested for the virus after experiencing common COVID-19 symptoms like fever, cough or a loss of sense of taste or smell. They will compare the incidence of positive tests and severity of illness in those who test positive.
Most delays ranged between 10 and 45 days, with a median of 24 days, after a visit to a doctor, which exceeds current World Health Organization recommendations of diagnosing and treating TB within two to three weeks of symptom onset
Delays were linked to greater risk for disease complications, transmission of infection to household members
Older individuals and those with compromised immunity were at greater risk for delayed diagnoses
Use of diagnostic molecular testing, use of chest imaging and being seen by a specialist were all linked to more prompt identification of TB infection, suggesting delays may be preventable
Findings underscore the need to increase awareness of TB among frontline clinicians who may not suspect TB due to rarity of infection in this country
Researchers at Rutgers School of Dental Medicine have found evidence that two types of mouthwash disrupt the COVID-19 virus under laboratory conditions, halting its ability to replicate in a human cell.
Research reveals how mutated SARS-CoV-2 evades immune system defenses
In lab-dish experiments, the mutant virus escaped antibodies from the plasma of
COVID-19 survivors as well as pharmaceutical-grade antibodies
Mutations arose in an immunocompromised patient with chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection
Patient-derived virus harbored structural changes now seen cropping up independently in samples across the globe
Findings underscore the need for better genomic surveillance to keep track of emerging variants
Results highlight importance of therapies aimed at multiple targets on SARS-CoV-2 to minimize risk of resistance
The study also showed that the number of COVID-19 infections in pregnant patients from nearly all communities of color in Washington was high. There was a twofold to fourfold higher prevalence of pregnant patients with COVID-19 infections from communities of color than expected based on the race-ethnicity distribution of pregnant women in Washington in 2018.
Advances in the fields of biomaterials and nanotechnology could lead to big breakthroughs in the fight against dangerous viruses like the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. In APL Bioengineering, researchers from the Indian Institute of Science describe possibilities being explored by scientists, combining biomaterials and nanotechnology, to make vaccines more effective and build surfaces that could fight and kill viruses on their own.
The finding can offer a new way for creating therapies to prevent secondary bacterial infections.
Dentists and otolaryngologists are at particular risk of infection of COVID-19, since they need direct access to the mouth, nose, and throat of patients. The current solutions are expensive, not highly effective, and not very accessible. In Physics of Fluids, researchers discuss their design of an open-faced helmet for patient use that is connected to a medical-grade air filtration pump from the top that creates a reverse flow of air to prevent cough droplets from exiting the helmet.
Published in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, the study examined how an innovative coating UGA scientists developed can prevent liquids like water and blood from sticking onto surfaces. The researchers also found that the liquid-repellant coating can kill bacteria and halt blood clot formation on an object’s surface.
The bodies of people with uncontrolled diabetes appear to be the perfect environment for a common type of superbug to thrive unchecked and do its worst damage, according to new research by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine scientists.
Contagion processes, such as opinion formation or disease spread, can reach a tipping point, where the contagion either rapidly spreads or dies out. When modeling these processes, it is difficult to capture this complex transition. In the journal Chaos, researchers studied the parameters of these transitions by including three-person group interactions in a contagion model called the susceptible-infected-susceptible model. In this model, an infected person who recovers from an infection can be reinfected.
Researchers at Canada’s McMaster University and SQI Diagnostics have created a surface that repels every other element of human blood except a critical indicator of infection, opening a timely window for understanding the progress of COVID-19 in individual patients.
Accomplishing a feat that had been a pipe dream for decades, scientists at University of Utah Health and University of Virginia have recreated in a test tube the first steps of infection by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Doing so has provided up-close access to the virus—which is otherwise obstructed from view deep within the cell—and enabled identification of essential components that HIV needs to replicate within its human host. The research publishes in the journal, Cell.
A new article published online in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology reveals just how common these illicit products are on popular e-commerce sites, increasing the public’s risk for severe and potentially long-term complications, including blindness, disfiguration, and stroke.
Scientists have long believed that ocean viruses always quickly kill algae, but Rutgers-led research shows they live in harmony with algae and viruses provide a “coup de grace” only when blooms of algae are already stressed and dying. The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, will likely change how scientists view viral infections of algae, also known as phytoplankton – especially the impact of viruses on ecosystem processes like algal bloom formation (and decline) and the cycling of carbon and other chemicals on Earth.
Since the COVID-19 virus spreads through respiratory droplets, researchers in India set out to explore how droplets deposited on face masks or frequently touched surfaces dry. Droplets can be expelled via the mouth or nose and studies have shown a substantially reduced chance of infection once they dry. In Physics of Fluids, the researchers publish their findings that surface wetting properties to reduce the drying time of droplets could help lessen the risk of infection from coronaviruses.
Researchers will use big data analytics techniques to develop computational models to predict the spread of COVID-19. They will utilize forward simulation from a given patient and the propagation of the infection into the community; and backward simulation tracing a number of verified infections to a possible patient “zero.” The project also will provide quick and automatic contact tracing and leverages the researchers’ prior experience in modeling Ebola spread.
World-first plasma-coated bandages with the power to attack infection and inflammation could revolutionise the treatment of chronic wounds such as pressure, diabetic or vascular ulcers that won’t heal on their own.
Developed by the University of South Australia, the novel coating comprises a special antioxidant which can be applied to any wound dressing to simultaneously reduce wound inflammation a¬¬nd break up infection to aid in wound repair.
UC Davis Health physicians defined the conditions of coronavirus transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy and delivery.
Next-gen nano technologies that can prevent infection and diagnose disease are set to transform the medical industry as this important UniSA research is awarded more than $2 million dollars under the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2021 Investigator Grants.
A team of scientists led by Abhishek Singharoy at Arizona State University used the Summit supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to simulate the structure of a possible drug target for the bacterium that causes rabbit fever.
New Brunswick, N.J. (May 18, 2020) – Rutgers University–New Brunswick Professor Donald W. Schaffner is available for interviews on how to reduce the risk of coronavirus infection on vacation, at vacation rentals and while traveling during the COVID-19 pandemic. “Even though everyone in the…
Montefiore Health System, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and NYU Langone have launched a new clinical trial to study if convalescent plasma—taken from people who have recovered from COVID-19—is effective in treating the disease.
Researchers at Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine have begun testing the drug hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19, as part of a nationwide trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).
Many months since the first COVID-19 outbreak, countries continue to explore solutions to manage the spread of the virus. Chaos theory researchers analyzed the growth of confirmed cases across four continents to better characterize the spread and examine which strategies are effective in reducing it, and their results, published in Chaos, found the virus commonly grows along a power law curve.
Researchers at Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine showed for the first time that men clear the novel coronavirus from their bodies slower than women and found a possible explanation: a potential male-only “reservoir” for coronavirus.
The dearth of coronavirus tests and the many false negatives confront doctors with a difficult decision this new tool helps them make.
Lyme Campaign Seeks Participants Who Are ‘Resilient’ to the Tick-borne Disease
As scientists forge ahead to piece together a comprehensive profile of the new coronavirus fueling a historic pandemic, they are focusing their efforts on six areas: epidemiology, diagnostics, pathogenesis, clinical disease management, treatment and vaccines.
Rutgers’ RUCDR Infinite Biologics has launched a test for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and is using its automation experience and infrastructure to test as many as tens of thousands of samples daily. RUCDR has also submitted an emergency use authorization request for a saliva collection method that will allow for broader population screening.
A protein known to help cells defend against infection also regulates the form and function of mitochondria, according to a new paper in Nature Communications.
Painful hypodermic needles may not be needed in the future to give shots, inject drugs and get blood samples. With 4D printing, Rutgers engineers have created tiny needles that mimic parasites that attach to skin and could replace hypodermic needles, according to a study in the journal Advanced Functional Materials.
Researchers have discovered that the brains of developing embryos provide signals to a nascent immune system that help it ward off infections and significantly improve the embryo’s ability to survive a bacterial challenge. Viable brainless frog embryos can survive for some time, but exhibit chaotic and ineffective responses.
Study in mice shows the nervous system not only detects the presence of Salmonella in the gut but actively stops the organism from infecting the body
Nerves in the gut prevent Salmonella infection by shutting the cellular gates that allow bacteria to invade the intestine and spread beyond it
As a second line of defense, gut neurons help avert Salmonella invasion by maintaining the levels of key protective microbes in the gut
Findings reveal prominent role for nervous system in infection protection and regulation of immunity
Researchers at McMaster University have created a new coating to prevent clotting and infection in synthetic vascular grafts, while also accelerating the body’s own process for integrating the grafted vessels.
Mayo Clinic physicians will present findings at the American College of Gastroenterologists Annual Scientific Meeting, Oct. 25–30 in San Antonio.