Apes show dramatically different early immune responses compared to monkeys

A new study out of the University of Chicago and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques and baboons has found key differences in early gene expression in response to pathogen exposure, highlighting the importance of choosing the right animal model for the right questions.

Antibiotic-Resistant Strains of Staph Bacteria May Be Spreading Between Pigs Raised in Factory Farms and People in North Carolina

DNA sequencing of bacteria found in pigs and humans in rural eastern North Carolina, an area with concentrated industrial-scale pig-farming, suggests that multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains are spreading between pigs, farmworkers, their families and community residents, and represents an emerging public health threat, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Protein that Keeps Immune System from Freaking Out Could Form Basis for New Therapeutics

Treatment with a peptide that mimics the naturally occurring protein GIV prevents immune overreaction and supports a mechanism critical for survival in mouse models of sepsis and colitis, according to a UC San Diego study.

Study reveals element in blood is part of human — and hibernating squirrel — stress response

A new study published in the journal Critical Care Explorations shows for the first time that part of the stress response in people and animals involves increasing the levels of a naturally circulating element in blood. The discovery demonstrates a biological mechanism that rapidly responds to severe physiologic stress and potentially serves to protect us from further damage due to life-threatening conditions.

New Version of AACN’s Critical Care Orientation Course Includes Stand-alone and Specialty-focused Options

The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses has released the latest version of its Essentials of Critical Care Orientation online course. Since its initial launch in 2002, ECCO has been used at more than 1,100 hospitals and healthcare facilities as an integral part of their critical care orientation or to supplement classroom-based education.

Early Steroids Improve Outcomes in Patients with Septic Shock

Some critically ill patients with septic shock need medications called vasopressors to correct dangerously low blood pressure. When high doses of vasopressors are needed or blood pressure isn’t responding well, the steroid hydrocortisone is often used. In this situation, earlier treatment with hydrocortisone reduces the risk of death and other adverse outcomes, reports a study in SHOCK®: Injury, Inflammation, and Sepsis: Laboratory and Clinical Approaches, Official Journal of the Shock Society. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Patient Monitoring Systems for Sepsis – Mixed Results on Patient Outcomes

Automated patient monitoring systems (PMSs) have been designed to reduce delays in diagnosis of sepsis in hospitalized patients. But so far, studies evaluating these systems have shown inconsistent effects on mortality rates and other patient outcomes, according to an evidence review in a special September supplement to the Journal of Patient Safety, which was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Implementation of an Evidence-Based, Nurse-Driven Sepsis Protocol to Reduce Acute Care Transfer Readmissions in the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Setting

The aim of this study was to determine if implementing an evidence-based, nurse-driven sepsis protocol would reduce acute care transfer (ACT) readmissions from an inpatient rehabilitation facility compared to nonprotocolized or usual standard of care for adult sepsis patients undergoing physical rehabilitation.

Too Much Haste Leads to Little Speed

Researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) have written a new first draft chapter in the book of immunology. They have discovered a protective biological switch that, briefly, turns on the immune response at the first whiff of an invader—an important feature—but can also turn off potentially destructive immune rampage that may also occur. This “off” switch can protect against serious, life threatening inflammation.

New Algorithm Tracks Pediatric Sepsis Epidemiology Using Clinical Data

Researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have developed a novel computational algorithm to track the epidemiology of pediatric sepsis, allowing for the collection of more accurate data about outcomes and incidence of the condition over time, which is essential to the improvement of care.

Vitamin C-B1-Steroid Combo Linked to Lower Septic Shock Mortality in Kids

Treating septic shock in children with a combination of intravenous vitamin C, vitamin B1 and hydrocortisone (a commonly used steroid) is associated with lower mortality, according to a study from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago. This is the first pediatric study of the safe and relatively inexpensive treatment for septic shock, and the preliminary data supports the promising outcomes seen in adults. Findings were published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

For Patients with Sepsis, an Infectious Disease Expert May Reduce the Risk of Death

When people with severe sepsis, an extreme overreaction by the body to a serious infection, come to the emergency room (ER), they require timely, expert care to prevent organ failure and even death. When that care includes the early involvement of an infectious disease (ID) specialist, patient mortality can be reduced by as much as 40 percent, according to a new retrospective, single-center study published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases.

Antibody Improves Survival from Sepsis-Related Fungal Infections in Mice

An antibody that blocks the “programmed cell death” pathway may help the immune system fight off sepsis-related fungal infections, according to animal studies reported in SHOCK®: Injury, Inflammation, and Sepsis: Laboratory and Clinical Approaches, Official Journal of the Shock Society. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.