Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Translational microRNA Biomarkers, and More Featured in January 2021 Toxicological Sciences

in the January 2021 issue, Toxicological Sciences offers an engaging slate of research in toxicology, from endocrine toxicology and biomarkers to genetic and epigenetic toxicology and mixtures toxicology.

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Virginia Tech researchers uncover mechanisms that wire the brain’s cerebral cortex

A research team at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC has identified the type of brain cell that produces a protein that is crucial for the formation of inhibitory circuits in the brain. This insight could one day help scientists establish the basis for developing new drugs that mature or repair cellular networks.

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COVID-19 Frequently Causes Neurological Injuries

Without directly invading the brain or nerves, the virus responsible for COVID-19 causes potentially damaging neurological injuries in about one in seven infected, a new study shows. These injuries range from temporary confusion due to low body-oxygen levels, to stroke and seizures in the most serious cases, say the study authors.

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When seizures don’t stop: What’s the latest in treating status epilepticus?

When seizures last longer than about 5 minutes–a condition called status epilepticus–emergency treatment is required. About two-thirds of people respond to initial treatment with benzodiazepines, but the others need a second drug. Which drug to choose is a matter of some debate.

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Post-ictal psychosis: A medical emergency for people with epilepsy

About 70% of people with epilepsy report post-seizure (post-ictal) complications, ranging from fatigue to memory issues to headache. Post-ictal psychosis while rare, is perhaps the most dramatic of these. As many as 7% of people with temporal lobe epilepsy develop PIP, which can cause suicidal behavior or interpersonal violence. The condition requires immediate attention and treatment.

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Reducing the epilepsy treatment gap in Pakistan: Start small, stay flexible, never give up

In retrospect, Pakistan’s effort to reduce the treatment gap can appear painstakingly planned, like the blueprints for a shopping complex or a neighborhood. But the secret of the country’s success is not rooted in elaborate planning. Nor did it rely on generous funding or government support.

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Hackensack University Medical Center Participated in Nationwide Study that Finds Three Medications are Safe and Effective in Treating Life-Threatening Seizures

Hackensack University Medical Center researchers in Emergency Medicine participated in a nationwide study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in November 2019 that concluded that three drugs are equally safe and effective in treating patients with life-threatening seizures called Status Epilepticus (SE). The new study, Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT), examined three medications commonly administered in the emergency department to treat SE – levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate – in order to learn which is most effective in treating patients.

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Investigational Drug for People with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

Imagine not being able to drive, shower alone or even work because you are never quite sure when the next seizure will leave you incapacitated. Hope may be on the horizon for epilepsy patients who have had limited success with seizure drugs. In a study, led by a Johns Hopkins lead investigator, of 437 patients across 107 institutions in 16 countries, researchers found that the investigational drug cenobamate reduced seizures 55% on the two highest doses of this medication that were tested over the entire treatment period.

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Epilepsy is a threat to public health, says international report

Worldwide, more than 50 million people are living with epilepsy. As many as 37 million are not receiving treatment, though it can cost as little as US$5 a year and eliminates seizures about two-thirds of the time. These findings and many others are published in “Epilepsy: A public health imperative”, a report produced by ILAE, the World Health Organization and the International Bureau for Epilepsy.

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Epilepsy is a threat to public health, says international report

Worldwide, more than 50 million people are living with epilepsy. As many as 37 million are not receiving treatment, though it can cost as little as US$5 a year and eliminates seizures about two-thirds of the time. These findings and many others are published in “Epilepsy: A public health imperative”, a report produced by ILAE, the World Health Organization and the International Bureau for Epilepsy.

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