Ultrafast pulses from X-ray lasers reveal how atoms move at femtosecond timescales, but measuring the properties of the pulses is challenging. A new approach trains neural networks to analyze the pulses. Starting from low-resolution measurements, the neural networks reveal finer details with each pulse, and they can analyze pulses millions of times faster than previous methods.
When light hits certain molecules, it dislodges electrons and creates areas of positive and negative charge. An X-ray free-electron laser study has directly observed how this charge transfer affects a molecule’s structure for the first time.
A new, compact system has been successfully demonstrated at the Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center to provide simultaneous high-resolution measurements of multiple electron-beam properties.