Effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on hematopoietic stem cells in treating aplastic anemia in mice via MAPK pathway


Aplastic anemia (AA) presents a significant clinical challenge as a life-threatening condition due to failure to produce essential blood cells, with the current therapeutic options being notably limited.


To assess the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg1 on AA, specifically its protective effects, while elucidating the mechanism at play.


We employed a model of myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in C57 mice, followed by administration of ginsenoside Rg1 over 13 d. The investigation included examining the bone marrow, thymus and spleen for pathological changes via hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, orbital blood of mice was collected for blood routine examinations. Flow cytometry was employed to identify the impact of ginsenoside Rg1 on cell apoptosis and cycle in the bone marrow of AA mice. Additionally, the study further evaluated cytokine levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed the expression of key proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway via western blot.


Administration of CTX led to significant damage to the bone marrow’s structural integrity and a reduction in hematopoietic cells, establishing a model of AA. Ginsenoside Rg1 successfully reversed hematopoietic dysfunction in AA mice. In comparison to the AA group, ginsenoside Rg1 provided relief by reducing the induction of cell apoptosis and inflammation factors caused by CTX. Furthermore, it helped alleviate the blockade in the cell cycle. Treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 significantly alleviated myelosuppression in mice by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway.


This study suggested that ginsenoside Rg1 addresses AA by alleviating myelosuppression, primarily through modulating the MAPK signaling pathway, which paves the way for a novel therapeutic strategy in treating AA, highlighting the potential of ginsenoside Rg1 as a beneficial intervention.

Key Words: Aplastic anemia, Ginsenoside Rg1, Myelosuppression, MAPK signaling pathway, Bone marrow, Hematopoietic stem cells


Core Tip: This study evaluated ginsenoside Rg1’s efficacy in aplastic anemia (AA) treatment, focusing on its impact on bone marrow pathology, hematopoiesis, and inflammation in a cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression C57 mice model. It demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 not only reduces cell apoptosis and inflammation but also promotes hematopoietic recovery by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for AA.

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