Monkeypox (mpox) is a zoonotic disease caused by the mpox virus (MPXV) that has been primarily limited to Central and West African nations since its discovery. The recent spread of the West African lineage of MPXV in historically unaffected countries has raised concerns for global public health. Despite a significant decrease in global mpox cases, there is still a risk of a global resurgence. This study reports the first local case of mpox caused by an imported case in the Chinese mainland. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosed the two cases, and the viral genomes were obtained by next-generation sequencing. Genomic analysis revealed that the two strains shared an identical genome sequence and belonged to the B.1.3 branch of the West African lineage, which is the first local case of mpox caused by an imported case in the Chinese mainland, highlighting the potential threat of mpox in China and the immediate need for adequate surveillance measures.
- The first local case of monkeypox (mpox) in the Chinese mainland is reported.
- Secondary infection was observed in the current case caused by sexual contact in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population.
- The monkeypox virus (MPXV) of current cases belonged to the B.1.3 branch of the West African lineage.