Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), distributed in many tissues in the human body, are multipotent cells capable of differentiating in specific directions. It is usually considered that the differentiation process of MSCs depends on specialized external stimulating factors, including cell signaling pathways, cytokines, and other physical stimuli. Recent findings have revealed other underrated roles in the differentiation process of MSCs, such as material morphology and exosomes. Although relevant achievements have substantially advanced the applicability of MSCs, some of these regulatory mechanisms still need to be better understood. Moreover, limitations such as long-term survival in vivo hinder the clinical application of MSCs therapy. This review article summarizes current knowledge regarding the differentiation patterns of MSCs under specific stimulating factors.
Core Tip: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating in specific directions. The differentiation process of MSCs depends on diverse specialized external stimulating factors. The results from recent studies have revealed other underrated roles in the differentiation process of MSCs. However, several questions remain to be solved prior to stable and effective clinical treatment. Our review explores the differentiation patterns of MSCs and summarizes the relevant research according to stimulus types. Finally, future prospects are discussed with regard to their clinical applications.
- Citation: Zhou JQ, Wan HY, Wang ZX, Jiang N. Stimulating factors for regulation of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. World J Stem Cells 2023; 15(5): 369-384
- URL: https://www.wjgnet.com/1948-0210/full/v15/i5/369.htm
- DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v15.i5.369