Long noncoding RNAs in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells osteogenic differentiation: Implications in osteoarthritis pathogenesis

This letter focuses on a recently published article that provided an exceptional description of the effect of epigenetic modifications on gene expression patterns related to skeletal system remodeling. Specifically, it discusses a novel modality of epigenetic regulation, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and provides evidence of their involvement in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells osteo-/adipo-genic differentiation balance. Despite focus on lncRNAs, there is an emerging cross talk between lncRNAs and miRNAs interaction as a novel mechanism in the regulation of the function of the musculoskeletal system, by controlling bone homeostasis and bone regeneration, as well as the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Thus, we touched on some examples to demonstrate this interaction. In addition, we believe there is still much to discover from the effects of lncRNAs on progenitor and non-progenitor cell differentiation. We incorporated data from other published articles to review lncRNAs in normal progenitor cell osteogenic differentiation, determined lncRNAs involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis in progenitor cells, and provided a review of lncRNAs in non-progenitor cells that are differentially regulated in osteoarthritis. In conclusion, we really enjoyed reading this article and with this information we hope to further our understanding of lncRNAs and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells regulation.

Key Words: Long noncoding RNAs, Epigenetics, Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, Degenerative bone diseases, Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis

 

Core Tip: This letter summarizes that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) osteo-/adipo-genic differentiation balance. We added that the interaction between lncRNAs and miRNAs is strongly involved in the regulation of the function of the musculoskeletal system, by controlling bone homeostasis and bone regeneration, as well as the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Additionally, MSCs/progenitor cells lncRNAs are involved in osteogenic differentiation, osteoarthritis pathogenesis, and lncRNAs in non-progenitor cells are differentially regulated in osteoarthritis.