Global climate trend since Dec. 1 1978: +0.13 C per decade

Global Temperature Report: October 2019

Global climate trend since Dec. 1 1978: +0.13 C per decade

October Temperatures (preliminary)

Global composite temp.: +0.46 C (+0.83 °F) above seasonal average

Northern Hemisphere.: +0.64 C (+1.15 °F) above seasonal average

Southern Hemisphere.: +0.27 C (+0.49°F) above seasonal average

Tropics.: +0.30 C (+0.54°F) above seasonal average


September Temperatures (final)

Global composite temp.: +0.61 C (+1.10 °F) above seasonal average

Northern Hemisphere.: +0.64 C (+1.15 °F) above seasonal average

Southern Hemisphere.: +0.59 C (+1.06°F) above seasonal average

Tropics.: +0.60 C (+1.08°F) above seasonal average


Notes on data released November 1, 2019 (v6.0)

October’s globally-averaged, bulk-layer atmospheric temperature anomaly of +0.46°C (+0.83°F) represented the second warmest October reading of the past 41 Octobers in our satellite record, though it is statistically tied with two other years. The global temperature departure was a quarter degree cooler in October than September, however, the land area of the earth tied 2017 for the warmest October land in the record (+0.74°C, 1.33°F).

The conterminous U.S. as a whole experienced an average October (-0.03°C, -0.05 °F) with north central and northwestern portions well below average (see below). The warmth in Alaska lifted the 49 continental states’ average to +0.25°C (+0.45°F).

Globally, locations with sustained warmer-than-average temperatures for the month appeared over the NE Pacific Ocean northward through the Alaskan Arctic as well as along eastern North America. Nations in southeastern Europe eastward through Kazakhstan were well above average as was Japan, South Africa and Eastern Antarctica where the planet’s warmest departure from average occurred near Dome Fuji at +4.4 °C (+8.0 °F).

The planet’s coldest departure from average this month was -3.3 °C (-6.0 °F) near Rosebud Montana in the center of a stubborn area of cold air in central/western North America. Other areas of cooler than average temperatures occurred over Scandinavia and the South Atlantic Ocean.

Spoiler Alert first published March 2019:

As noted over the past several months in this report, the drifting of satellites NOAA-18 and NOAA-19, whose temperature errors were somewhat compensating each other, will be addressed in this updated version of data released from March 2019 onward. As we normally do in these situations we have decided to terminate ingestion of NOAA-18 observations as of 1 Jan 2017 because the corrections for its significant drift were no longer applicable. We have also applied the drift corrections for NOAA-19 now that it has started to drift far enough from its previous rather stable orbit. These actions will eliminate extra warming from NOAA-18 and extra cooling from NOAA-19. The net effect is to introduce slight changesfrom 2009 forward (when NOAA-19 began) with the largest impact on annual, global anomalies in 2017 of 0.02 °C. The 2018 global anomaly changed by only 0.003°C, from +0.228°C to +0.225°C. These changes reduce the global trend by -0.0007 °C/decade (i.e. 7 ten-thousandths of a degree) and therefore does not affect the conclusions one might draw from the dataset. The v6.0 methodology is unchanged as we normally stop ingesting satellites as they age and apply the v6.0 diurnal corrections as they drift.

To-Do List:

There has been a delay in our ability to utilize and merge the new generation of microwave sensors (ATMS) on the NPP and JPSS satellites. As of now, the calibration equations applied by the agency have changed at least twice, so that the data stream contains inhomogeneities which obviously impact the type of measurements we seek. We are hoping this is resolved soon with a dataset that is built with a single, consistent set of calibration equations. In addition, the current non-drifting satellite operated by the Europeans, MetOP-B, has not yet been adjusted or “neutralized” for its seasonal peculiarities related to its unique equatorial crossing time (0930). While these MetOP-B peculiarities do not affect the long-term global trend, they do introduce error within a particular year in specific locations over land.

As part of an ongoing joint project between UAH, NOAA and NASA, Christy and Dr. Roy Spencer, an ESSC principal scientist, use data gathered by advanced microwave sounding units on NOAA, NASA and European satellites to produce temperature readings for almost all regions of the Earth. This includes remote desert, ocean and rain forest areas where reliable climate data are not otherwise available. Research Associate Rob Junod assists in the preparation of these reports. The satellite-based instruments measure the temperature of the atmosphere from the surface up to an altitude of about eight kilometers above sea level. Once the monthly temperature data are collected and processed, they are placed in a “public” computer file for immediate access by atmospheric scientists in the U.S. and abroad.

The complete version 6 lower troposphere dataset is available here:

Archived color maps of local temperature anomalies are available on-line at:

Neither Christy nor Spencer receives any research support or funding from oil, coal or industrial companies or organizations, or from any private or special interest groups. All of their climate research funding comes from federal and state grants or contracts.

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